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What is the ideal state? Is it the “soziale Marktwirtschaft” of Ludwig Erhard? Is it perhaps the Scandinavian model? Maybe it is the “nightwatchman” state… Or is the ideal system having no state at all? Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974) by Robert Nozick is an intellectually engaging work by a bright libertarian radical. To this day, Nozick’s magnum opus is one of the most important—and the most respected—works in the intellectual history of libertarianism and classical liberalism.
Nozick’s book consists of three parts, hence the title Anarchy, State, and Utopia. The uniqueness of his argumentation lies in his method of reasoning.

Following Adam Smith, he calls it “invisible-hand explanations”. His theory does not contain an imagined or hypothetical social contract and doesn’t assume the existence of a creator or any deliberate design.
Instead, the author argues that a minimal state would emerge spontaneously through individual decisions taken by the people and organisations in the state of nature. This state would emerge from self-interested actions, those which do not aim specifically at the creation thereof and without violating anyone’s rights. No state is more extensive than can be justified.

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